Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species that has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of time, and it originated from Central Asia. This fast-growing plant has recently been rediscovered owing to its multiple uses: it contains a plethora of phytochemicals as well as both cellulosic and woody fibers. You can buy more products in our store.
Pharmaceutical and infrastructure companies are also interested in hemp, since its metabolites demonstrate strong bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to produce bioplastics and concrete-like materials, respectively. The diverse spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is examined in this study, with a particular focus on industrial compounds including cannabinoids, terpenes, and phenolic chemicals, as well as their biosynthetic pathways.
Cannabinoids are a group of chemical compounds that have been the focus of extensive study in the field of medicine because of their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in people, including psychotropic activities. In light of the most up-to-date findings, the therapeutic and commercial prospects for some terpenes and phenolic chemicals, particularly stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted. The potential use of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture to boost hemp secondary metabolites production is addressed by way of discussing plant genetic engineering’s power.
In this study, two types of plant cell cultures are examined in detail: cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Also discussed is hemp trichomes in light of their role as phytochemical producers, with particular emphasis on their potential applications utilizing -omics technologies like metabolomics and transcriptomics to accelerate the detection and large-scale production of lead chemicals from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture.
The current climate and financial situation push us to use sustainable resources in order to decrease our reliance on petrochemicals while also minimizing the effect on the environment. Plants are precious natural resources since they can provide both phytochemicals and lignocellulosic biomass. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is discussed in this paper because it is a source of fibers, oil, and molecules, all of which make it an emblematic example of a multi-purpose crop. We focus on hemp’s (Cannabis sativa L.) applications and, more particularly, its diverse array of phytochemicals in this section.
Cultivation and Processing
Hemp is from Central Asia. Hemp cultivation for fiber has been documented in China as far back as 2800 BCE, and it was practiced in the Mediterranean countries of Europe beginning during the Christian era and spreading throughout Europe during the Middle Ages. It was cultivated in Chile in the 1500s, followed by North America a century later.
Hemp is an annual plant that thrives in temperate regions and may grow up to 5 meters tall (16 feet). Crops require average monthly rainfall of at least 65 mm (2.5 inches) throughout the growing season, and they are densely seeded. Fiber-consuming crops are sown densely and yield plants that stand around 2 to 3 meters tall with practically no branching. Plants cultivated for oilseed are spaced farther apart and have more numerous branches. The highest yield and quality are attained by harvesting fiber as soon after the plants reach maturity as possible, when the full blooms and freely shedding pollen of the male plants indicate that they are ripe. Although plants occasionally may be pulled up by hand, they are generally cut about 2.5 cm (1 inch) above the soil line.
Commercial hemp is manufactured from the stalks of Cannabis sativa plants, whereas industrial hemp (sometimes referred to as “poli” or “industrial”) is made from the seeds. The stalks are retting, drying, and crushing in a series of operations called decortication—which includes a shaking process that completes separation from the woody portion and releases long, fairly straight fiber known as line. Individual cylindrical cells with an irregular surface make up the fibres, which can be more than 1.8 meters long (5.8 feet).
South Africa has no laws permitting the cultivation, possession, or trade of marijuana. This page is being published for educational purposes only and should not be taken as an indication that the National Botanical Institute supports changing anti-cannabis legislation.
Dagga is a native of Asia, although it is now grown in many nations and has become naturalized in southern Africa. It’s a tall, annual herb with hairless stems that grow to be up to four meters tall. Stems are minutely hairy and green, with hollow internodes. Alternating leaves have palmately compound leaflets. Sessile leaflets have three to eleven teeth on the margins. The stalk of the leaf can reach 50 mm in length. Male and female flowers are tiny greenish yellow blossoms that hang from different plants, each having 4 mm diameter spotted seeds. “
There are three types of hemp: var. sativa, var. indica, and var. spontanea. It has big leaves and is tall and loosely branched. It’s primarily cultivated for fiber and oil from the seed. Leaflets are five to seven broad and tapering toward both ends. Hemp has relatively low levels of THC, which makes it difficult to grow commercially in North America because it is illegal there without a license (although some states do allow hemp cultivation).
The var. indica is less tall, more compact, and has more crowded branches. It’s been used as a medicine and a stimulant to alter moods. The majority of leaflets are numerous, tapering towards the base, and relatively fragile. Fruits are huge. Varieties with small leaves are known as “spontanea.”
Distribution and habitat
Cannabis is found throughout southern Africa, with var. sativa in Botswana, Limpopo, North-West, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Western and Eastern Cape; var. indica in Mpumalanga; and var. spontanea in the Northern Cape.
Derivation of Name and Historical Aspects
Cannabis is derived from the Greek term kannabis, the Arabic term kannabi, or the Persian word kannab. The Hottentot word dachah was shortened in Dutch to dagga. This indigenous name reflects its long use in southern Africa.
Wind and water are responsible for the dispersal of marijuana seeds. It is suited to a variety of environments. The plant is consumed by deer, birds, beetles, leaf-eating larvae, and slugs.
It is utilized to treat asthma, bronchitis, headaches, the flu, epilepsy, cough and pains. For example, crude derivatives from plants are used to treat migraine, epilepsy, malaria, glaucoma, nausea caused by chemotherapy treatment or appetite stimulation in people with cancer or AIDS. It is also used to reduce muscular spasms in multiple sclerosis (B.E. van Wyk 2000).
Hemp fiber (often referred to as hemp) is used to create practical textiles and rope, and it is cultivated as a crop in certain nations for this reason. Clothes made of the material are more robust than those constructed from cotton or linen. The fibre is stronger than glass fiber, so it’s preferable for reinforcing the plastic component in cars. It does not generate environmental concerns when disposed of properly.
For the most part, people smoke marijuana for enjoyment since it causes hallucinations. Dagga smoking can cause respiratory problems and an impairment of the central nervous system, according to studies.
Growing Cannabis Sativa
It is grown from seeds. Because it is against the law to cultivate this plant openly, it is commonly cultivated secretly in inaccessible bush with no accessible paths in mountainous regions. If given enough water, it grows quickly in fertile, warm locations. It’s a self-seeding weed because its seedlings are frequently spotted at smoking spots, camp sites, and gardens.